A mixed bag:
The Kindle has Greek characters, but not complete math (in the image below, there should be a ⇔ <=> character).
It converts Courier (at least) to monospaced, but does not auto-convert Consolas:
As you can see, neither the Courier nor the Consolas work (just look at the difference in space taken by ||||| and mmmmm).
This is a PDF conversion,
so it’s possible that a different authoring route (perhaps Kindle specific) is necessary to get monospaced fonts (See update below…) . Bad news for programmers:
Update: Ah hah!
I managed to trigger the Kindle monospaced font by converting from HTML and using the <pre> tag:
More bad news, though: using an explicit HTML <font face=”Courier”> tag does not work.